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1. Myopia

What is Myopia

Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a refractive error, which means that the eye does not bend or refract light properly to a single focus to see images clearly. In myopia, close objects look clear but distant objects appear blurred. Myopia is a common condition that affects an estimated 25 percent of Americans. It is an eye focusing disorder, not an eye disease.

Causes of Myopia

In order for our eyes to be able to see, light rays must be bent or refracted by the tear film, the cornea and the lens so they can focus on the retina, the layer of light-sensitive cells lining the back of the eye. The retina receives the picture formed by these light rays and sends the image to the brain through the optic nerve, which is actually part of the brain.

Myopia occurs when the eye is longer than normal or has a cornea (clear front window of the eye) that is too steep. As a result, light rays focus in front of the retina instead of on it. This allows you to see near objects clearly, but distant objects will appear blurred.

Symptoms for Myopia:

Some of the signs and symptoms of myopia include eyestrain, headaches, squinting to see properly and difficulty seeing objects far away, such as road signs or a blackboard at school.

Myopia symptoms may be apparent in children when they are between ages eight and 12 years old. During the teenage years, when the body grows rapidly, myopia may become worse. Between the ages of 20 and 40, there is usually little change.

Treatment for Myopia

There is no best method for correcting myopia. The most appropriate correction for you depends on your eyes and your lifestyle. You should discuss your lifestyle with your ophthalmologist to decide which correction may be most effective for you.

Eyeglasses or contact lenses are the most common methods of correcting myopia symptoms. They work by refocusing light rays on the retina, compensating for the shape of your eye. Eyeglasses can also help protect your eyes from harmful ultraviolet (UV) light rays. A special lens coating that screens out UV light is available.


2. Presbyopia

What is Pesbyopia:

Presbyopia (which literally means “aging eye”) is an age-related eye condition that makes it more difficult to see very close.

When you are young, the lens in your eye is soft and flexible. The lens of the eye changes its shape easily, allowing you to focus on objects both close and far away.

After the age of 40, the lens becomes more rigid. Because the lens can’t change shape as easily as it once did, it is more difficult to read at close range. This normal condition is called presbyopia.

Since nearly everyone develops presbyopia, if a person also has myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) or astigmatism, the conditions will combine. People with myopia may have fewer problems with presbyopia.

Causes of Prebyopia

Unlike other refractive errors such as nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) and astigmatism, presbyopia is caused by an age-related process that leads to the eye’s lens losing its flexibility.

It is generally believed that as we age, changes in the lens’s proteins make the lens more rigid and less flexible over time. Also, muscles surrounding the lens may lose their elasticity. As the lens becomes less flexible and able to change shape as easily as it used to, the eye has a harder time focusing on close objects. This is why people over age 40 often find themselves holding reading material farther away to be able to see it clearly.

Symtoms for Presbyopia

Some of the signs and symptoms of presbyopia include eyestrain, headaches or feeling tired from doing up-close work. One of the most obvious signs of presbyopia is the need to hold reading materials at arm’s length in order to focus properly.

The symptoms of hyperopia (farsightedness) and presbyopia are similar, however, they are caused by different things. Hyperopia is a refractive error that occurs when the eye is shorter than normal or has a cornea (clear front window of the eye) that is too flat. As a result, light rays focus beyond the retina instead of on it. Generally, this allows you to see distant objects clearly but near objects will appear blurred. While hyperopia is usually present from birth, presbyopia develops later — usually around age 40.

Correcting Presbiopia

Reading glasses are a very common and easy way to correct presbyopia symptoms, and are typically worn just during close work such as reading, sewing, etc. These “readers” are easily purchased at drug stores and other retail stores. You can also choose higher-quality versions prescribed by your eye doctor. If you decide to pick out a pair of reading glasses from the store, it is important that you select the weakest pair that will allow you to read newspaper-size print without difficulty.

If you wear contact lenses, your eye doctor can prescribe reading glasses that can be worn with your regular contacts to help you adjust to detailed, close-up work.

Eyeglasses with bifocal or progressive lenses are another common method of correcting presbyopia. Bifocal lenses have two different points of focus. The upper part of the eyeglass lens is set for distance vision, while the lower portion of the lens has a prescription set for seeing close work. Progressive lenses are similar to bifocal lenses, but they offer a more gradual visual transition between the two prescriptions, with no visible line between them.

Another option for correcting presbyopic vision is multifocal contact lenses. Just as bifocal lenses have two levels of corrective power, multifocal contact lenses create multiple levels of corrective power.

Another way to correct presbyopia with contact lenses is monovision, in which one eye has a contact set for distance, and the other has a contact set for near vision. The brain learns to adapt to using one eye or the other for different tasks.


 3. Hyperopia

What is Hyperopia

Hyperopia (farsightedness), is a refractive error, which means that the eye does not bend or refract light properly to a single focus to see images clearly. In hyperopia, distant objects look somewhat clear, but close objects appear more blurred.

People experience hyperopia differently. Some people may not notice any problems with their vision, especially when they are young. For people with significant hyperopia, vision can be blurry for objects at any distance, near or far. It is an eye focusing disorder, not an eye disease

Causes of hyperopia

In order for our eyes to be able to see, light rays must be bent or refracted by the tear film, the cornea and the lens so they can focus on the retina, the layer of light-sensitive cells lining the back of the eye. The retina receives the picture formed by these light rays and sends the image to the brain through the optic nerve, which is actually a part of the brain.

Like myopia or nearsightedness, farsightedness is usually inherited. Most children are farsighted, yet they do not experience blurry vision. With focusing (accommodation), children’s eyes are able to bend the light rays and place them directly on the retina. As long as the farsightedness is not too severe, hyperopic children will have clear vision for seeing objects at a distance and up close. As the eye grows and becomes longer, hyperopia lessens.

Symptoms for hyperopia

Some of the signs and symptoms of hyperopia include difficulty with close tasks like reading, eyestrain, squinting and headaches.

Treating Hyperopia

Eyeglasses or contact lenses are the most common methods of correcting hyperopia symptoms. They work by refocusing light rays on the retina, compensating for the shape of your eye. They can also help protect your eyes from harmful ultraviolet (UV) light rays. A special lens coating that screens out UV light is available.


 4. Astigmatism

What is Astigmatism

Astigmatism is an imperfection in the curvature of your cornea — the clear, round dome covering the eye’s iris and pupil — or in the shape of the eye’s lens. Normally, the cornea and lens are smooth and curved equally in all directions, helping to focus light rays sharply onto the retina at the back of your eye. However, if your cornea or lens isn’t smooth and evenly curved, light rays aren’t refracted properly. This is called a refractive error.

When the cornea has an irregular shape, it is called corneal astigmatism. When the shape of the lens is distorted, you have lenticular astigmatism. As a result of either type of astigmatism, your vision for both near and far objects appears blurry or distorted. It’s almost like looking into a fun house mirror in which you appear too tall, too wide or too thin.

People can be born with astigmatism — in fact, most people probably are born with some degree of astigmatism — and they may have it along with other refractive errors: nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia). While adults with a higher degree of astigmatism may realize their vision isn’t as good as it should be, children who have astigmatism symptoms may not be aware they have this condition, and are unlikely to complain about blurred or distorted vision. But uncorrected astigmatism can seriously impact a child’s ability to achieve in school and sports. That’s why it is crucial that children have regular eye exams to detect astigmatism or other vision problems as early as possible.

What Causes Astigmatism

Astigmatism is caused by an irregular curvature of the eye’s cornea or lens. If your cornea or lens isn’t smooth and evenly curved, light rays aren’t refracted properly. This is called a refractive error. Astigmatism is one type of refractive error, with blurred or distorted vision at near and far distances.

Astigmatism is caused by an irregular curvature of the eye’s cornea or lens. If your cornea or lens isn’t smooth and evenly curved, light rays aren’t refracted properly. This is called a refractive error. Astigmatism is one type of refractive error, with blurred or distorted vision at near and far distances.

Astigmatism is very common. In most cases, people with astigmatism are born with this condition. The reason why corneal shape differs from person to person is unknown, but the likelihood of developing astigmatism is inherited.


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